|Aladdin Knowledge Systems offers products used to manage network security,
including applications for managing content and guarding against computer viruses.
Aladdin's products are incorporated into virtual private networks, intranets, and extranets.
Aladdin also offers software protection systems that enable software developers to
securely distribute and manage software licenses and other electronic content. Aladdin's
products include: “HASP and Hardlock,” hardware-based software security systems;
“Privilege” software commerce solutions, “eToken,” a powerful two-factor authentication
USB device and the “eSafe” suite of anti- virus and content security solutions
|Alchemedia is a supplier of security software, focusing on the needs of customers
in the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, high technology, and manufacturing sectors.
Alchemedia’s “Mirage Enterprises,” which is comprised of the “Mirage Server” and the
“Mirage Client,” enables users to view and collaborate on documents in a secure
environment. The Mirage Server is software (installed on web servers) that flags
documents for protection by encoding policy limits and/or enciphering the data. The
Mirage Client is software that decrypts data sent to it by the Mirage Server and enforces
limitations on what authorized users can do with the data.
|Alpha-Tec is a research and development company providing digital image and
video processing software, including watermarking products for images, video, audio,
and 3D graphics.
|AlpVision provides digital watermarking, image processing, security products,
and other services. AlpVision’s video watermarking technology, which is applicable to
digital and analog video, can be used for tracking, fingerprinting, and copyright
infringement detection. AlpVision’s “Signit!” is digital image processing software used
to embed and retrieve registration numbers from signed images. AlpVision’s “LabelIt!”
is an application that can be used to embed a string of 20 characters in a scanned image.
The Company’s “CD-Check” application provides secure access to CD-ROM
|Authentica is a provider of DRM technology for electronic documents, web
pages, and e-mail. Authentica’s products include “PageRecall” (for electronic
documents, “NetRecall” (for web content), and “MailRecall” (for e- mail). The
Company’s products are built around Authentica’s patented “Active Rights
Management” technology, which combines content security and DRM technology within
its client-server architecture. Authentica’s “Content Security Server,” is a web
application for securely distributing and controlling e- mail and attachments
|CenterSpan Communications develops and markets secure software-based
Internet and intranet content delivery solutions for media and communications service
providers and corporate customers. CenterSpan’s “C-StarOne” is a content delivery
solution designed for delivering large files such as digital audio, video, executables, and
data files. The C-StarOne service is capable of supporting a variety of DRM technologies
that enable content owners to set their own “usage rules” for copyrighted materials.
Value-added services complementary to C-StarOne delivery include content preparation,
publishing, security, and data analysis.
|Certicom Corporation is an encryption technology company specializing in
security solutions for mobile computing and wireless data markets, including mobile ecommerce.
Certicom’s “movianDM” provides centralized policy management for secure
mobile devices, which can be used by network administrators in connection with other
Certicom products to centrally manage, deploy and enforce common handheld security
|Cisco Systems provides networking solutions that connect computing devices and
computer networks, allowing people to access or transfer information without regard to
differences in time, place, or type of computer. Cisco Systems developed the Open
Conditional Content Access Management (OCCAM), an encryption-based open
technolo gy standard for use in protecting digital content from unauthorized copying,
distribution, and playback, which can be used to protect content during transmission and
storage in any public, private or home network.
|ContentGuard, a DRM technology company, developed and promoted a standard
digital rights language known as Extensible Rights Markup Language (XrML), a means
of defining and controlling the rights and conditions associated with the use of
copyrighted materials, which is discussed more fully below. ContentGuard offers version
2.0 of XrML, which extends the range of rights-enabled business models applicable to
digital content as well as web services. Using XrML 2.0, a single digital rights language
can be used to assign fine-grained rights and conditions to both digital content and
|The Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) is a voluntary, not-for-profit, industry-led
organization that offers licensing and infringement protection services for both electronic
and paper-based works. Created in 1978 at the suggestion of Congress, CCC today is a
clearinghouse for processing rights for copyrighted text materials, with bilateral contracts
with almost 20 counterpart organizations in other countries. Beginning with a simple
transactional service by which rights holders and users could exchange permissions and
royalties relating to the licensing of photocopying, CCC has developed a suite of
licensing services to provide materials for education in colleges and universities. In
2000, CCC launched its “Rightslink” service, a technology protection system that allows
publishers to engage in point-of-content licensing of materia ls published on web sites.
|Digimarc Corporation is a provider of patented digital watermarking technologies
that allow imperceptible digital code to be embedded in the printed or digital version of
visual content, to deter counterfeiting and enhance Internet access. Digimarc’s
"ImageBridge" provides notice of copyrights and licensing opportunities for producers
and distributors of commercial photographs. The Company’s "MediaBridge" provides
the means to link directly from printed materials to specific Internet sites by showing the
enabled document to an imaging device. Digimarc’s "Excalibur" contains a covert
packaging security feature intended to deter counterfeiting, tampering and diversion of
consumer packaged goods.
|Digital World Services (DWS), a subsidiary of Bertelsmann AG, provides DRM
solutions to the entertainment and publishing companies. DWS developed the
“ADp2RA System,” which is the foundation for its digital distribution solutions and
services. When a digital content product is sold, this system grants initial consumer
content rights, administers and manages the renewal, revocation and backup of thoserights, and securely transfers the secure digital content throughout the digital distribution
|DMDsecure is a developer of server-side software components, frameworks and
solutions. The company's “DMDfusion” is a DRM system that enables the creation,
management, and delivery of licenses to entities offering access to protected content
through trusted media players and devices. DMDfusion is used to manage and control
the rights to high- value digital learning materials such as multimedia tutorials, video
presentations, and textbooks. DMDsecure’s “DMDaccess,” a server side delivery rights
enforcement solution for the delivery of live and on-demand streaming content, includes
flexible rights settings such as time limitations and expiration dates.
|Elisar Software is a supplier of DRM software applications. Elisar's
“MediaRights” client is a digital enforcement technology that allows all forms of
multimedia content to be safely displayed and distributed across intranets, extranets, and
over the Internet. The application protects web site content by preventing unauthorized
users from copying, forwarding, saving or printing images, multimedia files, documents,
and other on- line information. MediaRights operates as a software service in conjunction
with industry standard viewers.
|eSynch is a software development company that designs and delivers turnkey and
customized solutions for the digital delivery of rich media contents. eSynch's products
include “MediaOffice,” a suite of browser-based administration tools allowing flexible,
secure and intelligent Internet distribution of business media content; “Media Rights
Manager,” an integrated DRM system for secure Internet distribution of video content;
and “SiteStreamer,” a software toolkit that allows web sites to stream video in a more
intelligent fully branded environment.
|FileOpen Systems is a DRM technology provider. The “FileOpen Publisher” is a
desktop DRM solution for managing access to PDF documents. The FileOpen Publisher
has two components: “File Open Author” (for encrypting documents and setting
permissions) and “File Open Client” (an Acrobat plug- in which enforces security settings on end-user computers).
|Gemplus International is a provider of technology, products and services that
enable wireless network operators to offer their customers secure communications
transactions through smart cards and related software.
|Info2Clear is a DRM company assisting authors, content creators, and rights
owners in the secure distribution of digital content. The company also provides
technology for secure e- mail exchange. Info2Clear’s products include: “get-a-seal” (for
registration and certification of copyrightable content) and “get-a-copy” (an infrastructure
for selling reproduction rights). Info2Clear offers a digitally signed, forgery proof
registration certificate with a time stamp to provide evidence to defend rights.
Info2Clear’s “get-a-view Publisher” is a DRM solution for publishers interested in
entering the eBook market. Info2Clear’s “eBookSuite” is an eBook-making tool set for
publishers, which includes DRM technology.
|Infraworks Corporation is a supplier of DRM products based on its patented
“InTether” technology, which enables organizations to create and securely share digital
files. The “InTether File Security Series” is a collection of applications that protect digital
files both inside and outside an organization. InTether File Security Series is comprised
of two components: the “Packager” (which generates encrypted packages) and the
“Receiver” (a client-side application that controls access and enforces permissions). The
Series includes: the “InTether Desktop” (providing for secure e- mail), the “InTether
Server” (providing for secure distribution over the Internet), and the “InTether
SecureCD” (providing for secure distribution of CD-ROMs).
|Intel Corporation, a maker of semiconductor chips, supplies the computing and
communications industry with chips, boards, systems that are integral components of
computers, servers, and networking and communications products. Intel developed the
High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection (HDCP), a technology to protect
uncompressed digital content as it travels over Digital Visual Interface (DVI) links to
computer monitor or television displays.
|IBM creates, develops and manufactures advanced information technologies,
including computer systems, software, networking systems, storage devices, and
microelectronics. IBM’s Electronic Media Management System (EMMS) is an
integrated DRM system that enables users to process media business data to package
content with associated digital rights into encrypted containers for distribution to EMMS
content delivery networks, retailers and enterprise portals.
|InterTrust Technologies Corporation||InterTrust Technologies developed a general purpose DRM platform, allowing for
the protection and management of rights and interests in digital information including
music, videos, software, games, publications and images. InterTrust’s “RightsSystem”
DRM platform is designed to implement a range of DRM functions, including persistent
protection of digital information of all types and support for simple to complex business
models. The RightsSystem consists of three elements. The “Rights/System Packager”
enables content owners, distributors, and service providers to create digital content and
package the products for distribution. The “Rights/System Server” allows content owners
to establish and maintain the secure infrastructure for the system and authorize and
deliver rights to the users of the system. The “Rights/System Client” enables consumers
to access and use protected content on a variety of devices, including PCs, mobile phones
and communicators, set-top boxes, and music players.Note: InterTrust was recently
acquired by Sony of America, Koninklijke Philios Electronics N.V., and another investor.
|Liquid Audio is a provider of software, infrastructure and services for the secure
digital delivery of media over the Internet. Liquid Audio's open platform enables the
digital delivery of music over the Internet, giving artists, record companies, web sites and
retailers the ability to create, syndicate and sell recorded music with copy protection and
copyright management. Liquid Audio's digital distribution system is based on patented
DRM technology and technologies for secure content transfer to portable devices, as well
as the ability to honor territorial restrictions for digital music content.Note: In
2002, Liquid Audio sold its domestic and foreign rights to its patents to Microsoft, and
Liquid Audio received a royalty- free license to continue to use the technology. In 2003,
Liquid Audio sold its digital music fulfillment business to Geneva Media, LLC.
|LockStream Corporation creates software that secures distribution of content,
products and services across all platforms and wireless devices. LockStream’s “Secure
Package Creator” takes content in its native format (for example, MP3) and secures it for
digital distribution by converting a raw media file into a secure file. LockStream’s
“License Generator” creates and validates licenses for content packaged and secured in
the LockStream format, setting forth the rules governing how digital media can be played
or rendered across various consumer devices. LockStream’s “Secure Package Reader”
authenticates media before it can be rendered for playback on various devices.
|Macrovision Corporation produces copyright protection and video scrambling
technologies for commercial videocassette duplicators, software companies, set-top
decoder manufacturers, and major motion picture studios. Macrovision’s video products
prevent unauthorized copying and viewing of programs stored on videocassette and DVD
or broadcast on pay-per-view cable and over satellite networks. A major supplier for
Hollywood studios, over the past few years Macrovision has broadened its focus to
include copy protection and DRM for other media, including multimedia computer
software on CD-ROMs, electronic license management, and encryption. The company's
products include: “MacroSafe;” “SafeDisc;” “FlexLm;” “SafeAuthenticate;” “SafeCast;”
“SafeWrap;” “SAM Solutions;” “GT Licensing;” “Cactus Data Shield.”
|Microsoft Corporation develops, manufactures, licenses and supports a range of
software products, including scalable operation systems, server applications, worker
productivity applications and software development tools. Microsoft's core DRM
technology is “Windows Media Rights Manager,” an end-to-end19 system that supports
the secure delivery of digital media content as it travels across the Internet and between
devices. Rights Manager supports a broad array of distribution and business models,
including real-time streaming of digital content. Product features include: secure
packaging and distribution, flexible licensing rules, and the ability to upgrade and repair.
Microsoft's “Digital Asset Server” is Microsoft's solution for electronic publishing.
|MediaSec Technologies develops and commercializes products and solutions
based on its patented digital watermarking technology. MediaSec’s products include“MediaSignPrint ” (providing protection against the counterfeiting of documents such as
bank notes, identity cards or credit cards); “MediaSignDigitalWatermark” (an
authentication product for digital images and videos used with digital surveillance
systems); “MediaTrustTrusted” (a product combining digital watermarking with digital
signatures for verification of printed paper copies of digitally signed documents); and
“SysCoP” (a copyright information protection product designed for multimedia content,
still images, and audio).
|NDS provides conditional access, broadcast control software and products and
services for the management, control and secure distribution of entertainment and
information to television (satellite, terrestrial and cable) and personal computers. NDS’s
“Synamedia” system, used to protect Video-on-Demand (VOD) over broadband networks
using encryption technology, includes the “XTV Encryptor” (a content preparation
station) and the “XTV Server” (ensuring that only authorized viewers can view encrypted
|Ness Technologies is an information technology company specializing in the
development, consulting and integration of software solutions. Working with television
production companies in the United Kingdom, Ness Technologies developed “iRights,” a
software module that helps television, publishing, film, music and other media entities
manage their rights, contracts and royalties.
|On-Demand Distribution (OD2) enables record labels to sell music on- line by
providing the secure fulfillment of their music content to chosen retailers. As an enabling
technology for the music industry, OD2 manages a catalogue of music content from
several record labels.
|OverDrive is a provider of technology services for the protection of digitized
copyrighted works. The Company operates the Content Reserve digital rights
clearinghouse and distribution service (www.contentreserve.com) that provides copyright
protection and DRM services for over 30,000 works from approximately 300 commercial
publishers. OverDrive also serves as a DRM service provider for a number of
educational and digital content providers in the United States. The Company provides
copyright management services to Internet college bookstores and educational web sites in the United States and abroad and deploys DRM technologies in connection with a
broad range of materials used for educational purposes.
|Palm Digital Media (PDM) is a division of PalmSource, the software- licensing
unit of Palm. PDM has developed several eBook products for the Palm operating system,
including the Palm Reader for desktops and handheld devices. The Palm “Retail
Encryption Server” is the centerpiece of Palm's DRM technology. The DRM system uses
a hardware identification number, which has been assigned by the Palm Reader eBook
application to a handheld or desktop computer. The Server uses the identification
number to lock an eBook to a specific device.
|Philips Digital Networks provides end-to-end solutions incorporating high
performance MPEG-2 compression and multiplexing for satellite, cable and terrestrial
transmission systems. The Company’s technologies are applicable to broadcasting,
enhanced and interactive TV for the home, as well as for Internet and mobile content
delivery. Philips Digital Networks is developing audio/video streaming software,
including MPEG-4 streaming video application software. The Company’s content
delivery products incorporate secure conditional access, watermarking and DRM
technologies. Philips Digital Networks also is a supplier of set-top boxes and home
|Phocis is a digital security company, providing services that control and manage
the capture, processing and distribution of sensitive and confidential digital information.
The Company’s “Secure Digital Exchange” (SDX) allows users to revoke information
and offers persistent protection throughout the lifetime of a document. The Company’s
“Secure Publishing Exchange” (SPX) is a DRM system that allows publishers to prepare,
package and manage digital content in any format.
|Rainbow Technologies is a provider of digital content and transaction security
solutions for the Internet and eCommerce. The company designs, develops,
manufactures and sells anti-piracy, license management, distribution and tracking
products, and satellite and network communications products using encryption
technology. Rainbow’s products include secure web server acceleration solutions; antipiracy,
and Internet software licensing and distribution solutions; public key infrastructure-based security solutions; voice, data and satellite information security,
telecommunications and information security, authentication and USB-based web
|RealNetworks develops end-to-end solutions that allow a broad range of users to
create, send and receive audio, video and other multimedia services over the Internet.
The Company’s “Helix DRM” is a set of products for the secure licensing, delivery and
rights management of digital media Helix DRM was designed to provide high-quality
content delivery to trusted media players across all major platforms (including Internet
media formats and standards-based formats such as MPEG-4) to multiple devices,
including PCs, mobile devices, and home appliances.
|RSA Security is a provider of electronic security solutions. The company helps
build secure, trusted foundations for electronic businesses through the use of its twofactor
user authent ication, encryption, and public key management products and
solutions. RSA offers a number of authentication products (employing software and
hardware tokens, smart cards, and digital certificates) to ensure the authenticity of people,
devices, and transactions. RSA’s “Web Access Management Solution” is designed to
provide secure access to multiple based applications and services. RSA’s Developer
Solutions offer a range of software components to secure data in any format, wired or
|SCM Microsystems designs, develops and sells hardware, software and silicon
that enables users to securely access digital content and services, including content and
services that have been protected through digital encryption. SCM provides, among other
products, reader technology for access control systems deployed on the digital television
and PC platforms, including conditional access modules and interface technology used by
digital television operators to secure access to encrypted digital television broadcasts for
paying subscribers. SCM also provides smart card readers and interface technology used
to control access to PCs, computer networks and the Internet to facilitate computer and
network security and secure on- line transactions.
|SealedMedia is a DRM provider for publishers of all kinds of digital content
(including text, images, audio and video) on the Internet. There are three software
components to the Company’s “Sealed Media” solution: the “Sealer,” the “License
Server,” and the “Unsealer.” The software components can be used to support digital
content in a wide range of formats (including HTML, PDF, MP3, and MPEG-4). Access
to sealed documents may be limited to authorized users and cease after a specified
expiration date. Rights can be granted, changed or revoked at any time.
|SunnComm Technologies, a firm that develops technology to limit the
unauthorized copying of music compact disks (CDs), was the first company to
commercially release a content-protected CD. SunnComm’s “MediaCloQ” is a
technology designed to limit unauthorized copying of optical media using a personal
computer by introducing alterations in the control area of the CD. More recently,
SunnComm introduced its “Media Max CD3” technology, which builds on the Microsoft
Windows Media 9 Series Digital Media Platform.
|Sony Corporation is a diversified company operating in the motion picture, game,
and electronics industries (including the development, design, manufacturing and sale of
electronics equipment). Sony also manufactures and distributes recorded music and
image-based software and is one of the world’s largest producers of compact discs.
Although Sony’s “key2audio” copy control technology prevents computer playback,
Sony offers other products that allow owners of original CDs to play music on a PC or
MAC. More information on the key2audio technology is available at:
http://www.key2audio.com. Sony's DRM and distribution technology, "OpenMG X,"
will be applicable to a growing number of network-connected devices, including PCs,
OpenMG-related products, and PlayStation 2. Note: Sony of America, Koninklijke
Philios Electronics N.V., and another investor recently acquired InterTrust Technologies,
which is discussed above
|Spectra Systems is a developer of limited play CD, CD-ROM and DVD products
for the entertainment, software, and advertising industries. The Company developed
MediaCoat, a marking technology that allows the placement of text and graphics on the play side of CDs and DVDs without interfering with playback performance.
|Thomson (formerly Thomson Multimedia) provides technologies, systems,
finished products and services to consumers and professionals in the entertainment and
media industries. Through its digital media solutions, Thomson provides digital video
networking systems for the secure delivery of content from the studio to the consumer.
The Company also offers key applications and media management services that provide
the tools for content owners, network operators, and consumers to manage, access and
retrieve streaming entertainment, news, sports, and information.
|Savantech is a provider of digital distribut ion management services to media and
entertainment companies. Savantech’s “Photon Commerce” suite of products allows
users to create a single unifying view of metadata and assets stored in disparate
repositories across multiple divisions. Savantech’s “P hoton Rights Management”
product provides intellectual property owners with a convenient mechanism for searching
and requesting rights.
|TTR Technologies develops anti-piracy technologies that prevent illegal
reproduction of software, music, games, and other media for the software and
entertainment industries. TTR designs and develops digital security technologies that
provide copy protection for electronic content distributed on optical media and over the
Internet. TTR's “SafeAudio” software, which the company incorporates into encoding
systems for optical media, adds to audio CDs, CD-ROMs, and DVD-ROMs an indelible
digital fingerprint that prevents unauthorized consumer copying or professional
|Wave Systems develops, produces and markets hardware and software-based
digital security products for the Internet and e-commerce using encryption technology.
The centerpiece of Wave Systems is the “Embassy Trust System,” a trusted computing
infrastruc ture that combines client hardware and software and a back-office infrastructure
that manages its security functions. The client hardware consists of the “EMBASSY
2100” security chip, which may be embedded in such user devices as computer
keyboards, smart card readers, PC motherboards, PC and/or cable modems, personal digital assistants, cable set-top boxes and a wide variety of other user devices
|Verance Corporation provides systems for content management, airplay
verification and connectivity solutions for the entertainment, media, wireless
telecommunications and Internet industries. Verance also develops advanced audio
watermarking (including the standard for SDMI Phase 1 and DVD-Audio) and wireless
|VeriSign provides digital trust services used by web sites, enterprises and
individuals to conduct secure communications and electronic commerce on- line. The
Company’s code signing digital IDs (or certificates) allow content publishers, including
software developers, to digitally sign their content including software and macros for
secure delivery over the Internet. VeriSign’s “Authentication Services” allow users to
authenticate the identities of consumers, professionals and business entities at the
beginning of a trust relationship for on- line transactions. Verisign also provides managed
public key services
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